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In the stomach caustic soda combines with the acid to produce salt water. So stomach is fine. On skin Caustic Soda (CS) doesn’t feel like anything until it’s exfoliated your skin enough to expose nerve cells, which feels like mild tingling.
The treatment for CS burns and exposures is water, lots of water, and the esophagus starts off wet and get a wetter the more you swallow. CS takes a reasonable while to burn through bits of skin, and most of it (say you swig a big cup) is going to hit your stomach. That just leaves the thinnish coating on your actual throat, and maybe mouth I suppose, to be burned. Thin coatings can only penetrate so far before they’ve chemically expended themselves.
If you mixed draino with water, I doubt you’d get it strong enough to be dangerous, but if you put it in a pan and carefully applied a flame to melt it you’d essentially have a CS solution of 100%, that night do some damage. Some serious, get to the emergency room damage. But assuming you did, there’d be something the doctors and surgeons could try, though, as with any surgery, you could die while you’re under.
All in all, I’ve had 30% by weight CS on various parts of my body and the burns take a while to happen, and all they feel like afterwards is being uncomfortably exfoliated along with exceptionally dry (the CS reacts with oils and fats first to make soap). The most I needed after exposure was a thorough rinse within the next 5 minutes, and moisturising cream applied several times over the next two days.
I’ve had exposure to CS on my hands, face, eye once (that was an interesting one, I’d been driving in the country and was 40 minutes away from a town and I’d unknowingly had dried CS on my trousers where I was resting my hand when my eye got itchy. All I had on hand was my own saliva which I applied for a good 15 minutes!).